How about a nice hole in your skull? University of California researchers have found compelling new evidence that ancient Peruvian healers practiced a primitive form of cranial surgery more than 1, years ago. Known as trepanning or trepanation , the procedure involved removing a small piece of the patient’s skull. It was used to treat health issues ranging from head injuries to heartsickness. Healers used various tools and techniques in their surgery, including scraping and cutting implements and hand-operated drills. Kurin focused on five prehistoric sites in the south-central highlands of Andahuaylas, Peru , according to an article describing her research. Thirty-two skulls collected at the sites had the tell-tale markings of trepanation. Radiocarbon dating placed the skulls between the years and
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Share2 Shares 1K Skulls are an interesting part of the skeleton, because they give us an idea of what the face of its owner was like. To those who study them, skulls can also give a wealth of information about diet, lifestyle, health, age, and even brain size. Throughout history, many strange skulls have been discovered which seem to go against all previous knowledge. Sometimes such skulls lead to better understanding in various fields, but unfortunately there have always been those who enjoy fabricating unusual skulls for attention and profit.
These skulls fall down in the face of proper testing, yet they persist until the fraud is discovered and can be of great interest.
The character first appeared in the film Raiders of the Lost Ark, to be followed by Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom in , Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade in , The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles from to , and Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull in The character is also featured in novels, comics.
Optimus Prime , , Japanese ID number: The toy transforms into two major components; the first component being a red and blue White Freightliner WFT T cabover semi-trailer truck partially composed of die-cast metal, and the second component being a large silver trailer of currently-undetermined model. The cab transforms into the robot mode of Optimus Prime himself, with the addition of a pair of removable blue fists that plug into his headlights.
The fists themselves do not store anywhere in vehicle mode, but can fit easily in Prime’s opening chest compartment originally designed to accommodate two Diaclone driver figures. Prime is armed with a black laser rifle that, due to design, he cannot hold straight. Prime’s trailer opens up into his Combat Deck , containing the scout drone, Roller. The interior of the Combat Deck features three pegs that can accommodate Prime’s laser rifle, fuel pump and nozzle accessories, and seating for two Diaclone drivers.
As its central feature, the Combat Deck features a missile-armed repair drone pod mounted upon a boom lift arm featuring another cockpit for a Diaclone driver , which can also be extended through holes in the trailer’s roof and front-end when it is closed. Situated in the base of the boom arm is a spring-loaded launcher that can launch Roller out of the Combat Deck and into action.
Roller himself has seating for four Diaclone passengers, and features a port that can accommodate either Prime’s rifle or the fuel pump. The interior space of the trailer allows storage room for one standard Autobot car, which can also be shot forward by the launcher. Most people would be happy with just one Optimus Prime, but noooooo Optimus Prime was subject to several molding and color variations in his early days.
The earliest release of the figure featured larger fists, a gun with a thick, round barrel, a slightly-differently shaped gas pump, grey rockets, a grey Roller, a grey launcher in his Combat Deck, and metal plates in the floor of the Combat Deck a holdover from the Diaclone version of the toy, to which the magnetic feet of the pilots could cling.
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This paper is concerned with the history, technology and material of the skull and another larger white quartz skull, donated recently to the Smithsonian Institution. Manufacturing techniques were investigated, using scanning electron microscopy to examine tool marks on the artefacts, and compared with Mesoamerican material from secure contexts. They were probably worked with stone and wood tools charged with abrasives, some of which may have been as hard as corundum.
Textual evidence for Mexican lapidary techniques during the early colonial period, supported by limited archaeological evidence, also indicates a technology without the wheel, probably based on natural tool materials. In contrast, the two skulls under consideration were carved with rotary wheels.
And at the border between archaeology and quackery is the Crystal Skull. It’s one of the greatest and most bedeviling mysteries of Belizean archaeology but more than that, the skull is one of the most visually stunning objects known to mankind.
We were sponsored by our friend Norm from Sydney , who had accompanied us to Peru in October. Norm helped us to have a booth at the Festival for Body-Mind-Spirit in Sydney November 22nd – 26th and we also were accompanied by our friend Joke, who just happens to be a caretaker of three quartz crystal skulls. It was an absolutely amazing experience watching the Australians reaction to the two crystal skulls at our booth.
A Crystal Skull is an object composed of quartz crystal shaped in the form or approximating that of a human skull. There are two types of crystal skulls that exist, ones which have been crafted today by a modern-day carvers, referred to as contemporary crystal skulls and the other type is known as an old or ancient crystal skull because they have been uncovered within or near various ancient ruins.
In working with these ancient crystal skulls, we have found an incredible energy connected to this artifact and many strange psychic phenomena. The places where the human sized ancient crystal skulls have been found predominately are in Mexico or Central America with other reports of some skulls being discovered in South America, Europe and Russia. Thus far, four types of ancient quartz skulls are known including clear quartz, amethyst, rose quartz and smoky quartz.
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These skulls were believed to be encoded with the knowledge of the universe and according to legend, the world would be saved from a global catastrophe when the thirteen skulls were found and reunited. It is believed that the skulls will reveal their knowledge in a time of great crisis. However, there has been much speculation whether the skulls are authentic or fake.
Although the damaged lower skull was child-like, the upper cranium was huge, being mL, over mL larger than would be expected based on the lower skull. Pye claimed that radiocarbon dating had proved it was years old and that anonymous scientists had confirmed it to be the skull of an alien.
Author Mysteries The crystal skulls are believed to be of Aztec origins. Anna claimed hers was at least as old as the Mayan culture, possibly even older and of extraterrestrial origin. The Aztec and Mayan cultures were advanced in many ways and they developed in a relatively short period of time. They contemplated the night sky and had a vast cosmic mythology. They had complex calendars and calculated the movement of stars and planets.
They predicted astronomical events with accuracy. The skull also served as a central theme in their sacred calendars. According to some researchers, the Mayans claimed their ancestors came from the stars.
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Print Four hours drive south of Lima Peru one finds the Paracas Peninsula, part of which is an ecological reserve, where one can see wildlife such as sea lions, and a myriad of various sea bird species. The area is amazingly rich in seafood, and abundant fresh water exists just below the surface of the desert sands, suitable for irrigation free agriculture.
Therefore, it would seem to be a very liveable place for humans. Stone tools, of various forms and styles of shaping have been found in the area, and cursory analysis has established dates of as old as years.
Indiana Jones first cracked his whip in , with Raiders of the Lost Ark. Almost three decades later, he’s back at it in The Kingdom of the Crystal Skull. “Same old, same old,” he mutters at one.
What are the crystal skulls? Sarah Pruitt Beginning in the late 19th century, around a dozen carved skulls made of clear or milky white quartz—also known as rock crystal—made their way into private and public collections around the globe. According to the people who claimed to have discovered the skulls, they date back thousands or even tens of thousands of years, to ancient Mesoamerican civilizations such as the Aztec, Toltec, Mixtec or Maya.
Some have linked the skulls to the lost city of Atlantis, or claimed them as proof that extraterrestrials visited pre-Columbian civilizations such as the Aztecs. Scientists and archaeologists, on the other hand, are skeptical. For one thing, not one of the skulls was recovered on a documented excavation. And while skulls were a common motif in ancient Mesoamerica, and particularly Aztec, artwork several Aztec gods are represented by skulls , the style and technique of the crystal skulls do not resemble genuine pre-Columbian representations of skulls.
After finding markings that could only have been made by modern-day carving implements—rather than the stone, bone and wooden tools that would have been used in pre-Colombian times—they concluded that the skulls were likely fakes. The scientists believe they were probably manufactured in the late s, in response to a surge of interest in the ancient world and its artifacts.
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Collections[ edit ] Trade in fake pre-Columbian artifacts developed during the late 19th century to the extent that in , Smithsonian archaeologist William Henry Holmes wrote an article called “The Trade in Spurious Mexican Antiquities” for Science. Research[ edit ] Many crystal skulls are claimed to be pre-Columbian , usually attributed to the Aztec or Maya civilizations. Mesoamerican art has numerous representations of skulls, but none of the skulls in museum collections come from documented excavations.
The Ugha appear in LEGO Indiana Jones 2: The Adventure Continues where there are depicted as being led by an Ugha King, giving one possible answer as to how Akator is the kingdom of the Crystal Skull in the title of the fourth film.
Authors David Hatcher Childress archeologist and explorer and Stephen Mehler prehistorian and archeologist discuss detailed examinations of several famous skulls, the stories behind, and the probability of fact or fiction, the methodology for dating and classifying skulls, and the work of Nick Nocerino also known for his Sha-Na-Ra skull as a leader in skull research. Our authors discuss the history of Mesoamerica’s Olmecs, Zapotecs, Maya, and Aztecs in relation to the stories that follow the discovery and origins of certain skulls.
You will even find an explanation of HOW skulls store information, based on the studies and theories of Dr Marcel Vogel. Detailed testing was performed on some of these skulls with varing media. I found this book to be very detailed and very meaty in its desire to provide clarity on the skulls, their usage, and their authentication. If you are drawn to know more about crystal skulls, I highly recommend this book, even if you have read other skull books as I have.
Based on the level of detailed analysis, I would not hesitate to purchase more from this author. One person found this helpful Top critical review.
The Crystal Maiden of the Actun Tunichil Muknal Cave
According to the Maya Prophecies, the 5, year Fourth Age will come to it end in In a remarkable adventure which takes her all over Central South America and involves strange ceremonies at sacred pyramids, scaling an active volcano and chases with drug runners, Patricia Mercier attempts to discover whether will be the end of the world as know it or the dawning of a new golden age. When Patricia Mercier embarked on her personal quest to discover what the Maya people think may happen in she had no idea what to expect, and was surprised to be given a special mission; an old woman entrusted her with a life-size quartz crystal skull, telling her to carry it to the End of Time.
Since carbon-dating only works on organic substances, it is impossible to determine just how old a crystal skull is. But one recent study found reasonable signs of some skulls’ relative youth.
She was kind enough to write to me the detail of these close encounters. I felt so much emotion that it was like being introduced to a long lost friend. I rocked him like a baby, the tears rolling down my cheeks! How surprised I was to be experiencing such feelings, for I had never before heard of crystal skulls. After that I had various experiences with MAX in meditations.
During a session, a brilliant pink light began radiating through MAX. They were sending light through their crystal skull up to mine. One day, while giving a healing session, I felt a huge power emerge from my heart and move up into my throat and suddenly a very strange language burst forth from out of my mouth! Totally overpowered by this force, I kept speaking I noticed that the energies of the person on whom I was working seemed to respond to and understand this language.
I received the guidance that MAX the crystal skull would understand this language too!